Albertus Seba’s The Cabinet of Natural Curiosities. Seba, a 17th century Dutch apothecary, spend decades collecting and illustrating thousands of specimens.
Anatomical Flipbook, L.W. Yaggy & James J. West, 1885
*Don’t try this at home.
**Except maybe the lower right one, but only if you’ve already shaved your head … and don’t use permanent markers.
When: Cretaceous (~100 million years ago)
What: Melittosphex is a fossil bee. It is the oldest bee fossil ever found, and this tiny tiny (only 3 millimeters long!) specimen, beautifully preserved in amber, can tell us much about the evolution of this amazing group of social insects. The closest relatives to living bees are the wasps, and some wasps are more closely related to bees than they are to other groups of wasps. The crabronid wasps (the digger-wasps) are the wasps most closely related to bees. These wasps are solitary and while the adults feed on nectar, the young larva feed on a spider or insect that mom-wasp procures for them.
Melittosphex is assuredly more closely related to bees than any wasp, with a great deal of anatomical features found only in bees today, such as the morphology of its hindlimbs and the presence of intricately branching hairs on body. Melittosphex also has features reminiscent of its wasp ancestry that are not seen in any living bee species today; specific spurs on its middle pair of legs and a very slender rear most ‘foot’. This combination of features shows that Melittosphex is an excellent example of a transitional fossil, falling between the crabronid wasps and all living species of bees.
Knowledge of Melittosphex and its kin is critically important for determining how the solitary carnivorous (as larva) wasps gave rise to the eusocial herbivorous bees. But that is not all! These ancient bees also help inform us to how the modern plant biota was established. Today’s flora is dominated by angiosperms - the flowering plants, but this is a relatively recent state of things. The earliest known fossils of angiosperms date to only the Jurassic period, and it is not until the early Cretaceous that body fossils are known. It is at about 100 million years ago that the great angiosperm radiation can be seen, and shortly after this the flowering plants begin to dominate. The one specimen of Melittosphex known preserves minute pollen grains between the branching hairs on its body, showing that even 100 million years ago bees were involved in pollination of these flowing plants. It has long been thought that bees and angiosperms evolved in tandem, that each group depends on the other for its success, and little Melittosphex offers more support for this view.
Maria Sibylla Merian was a fine painter and superb naturalist, one of the first woman scientists we know of. Her observations of insects and their relationships with plants revolutionized botany and zoology. Maria Sibylla revealed, for the first time in print, the mystery of metamorphosis. Before her work, the prevailing opinion was that flies and worms came to life by spontaneous generation. Maria was one of the very first scientists who observed living animals and plants rather than dead specimens preserved in alcohol.
Maria Sibylla was a painter of great power at a time when in Germany, women were not permitted to earn a living as painters. But they could publish “models” for embroidery, which she did in her first book, Flowerbook, in her twenties.
Maria kept a journal of nature observations for 53 years, from age 16 to age 69. Her journal was rediscovered and published in German in 1976.
At 13, she wrote,
“I collected all the caterpillars I could find in order to study their metamorphosis. I therefore withdrew from society and devoted myself to these investigations.”
Understanding animals and their plant connections became the focus of her life, and from 1660 on she collected insects, recording and painting everything she could observe about their life cycles and behavior.In 1699, at the age of 52 years, Maria and her daughter Dorothea set sail for the Dutch colony of Surinam in South America. In those days such a voyage took three months. It was shocking for women, especially an old woman of 52, to undertake such a voyage.
For two years the two women explored Surinam, painting insects and plants as they traveled. When Maria became ill with malaria she returned to Amsterdam, but her daughter stayed five years, continuing her mother’s insect studies.
In 1705, Maria Sibylla published Metamorphosis of the Insects of Surinam (Metamorphosis Insectorum Surinamensium), lavishly illustrated with colored plates. The book earned wide acclaim and some financial success. However, her work was derided as fantasy by some naturalists for describing bird-eating spiders, (later confirmed) and found offensive by colonial officials who did not like her comments on the treatment of the indigenous Indians and African slaves. This book brought her work to the attention of the great scientist Carl Linneaus, and established her reputation.
Maria Sibyyla died from stroke in 1717. Just weeks before her death, Peter the Great, Tsar of Russia, purchased all of her original works. When Peter died, they were displayed in a museum, the first in Russia, where they remain.
Text & Flower image via Morning Earth.
Alkali metals are soft metals that can be cut with a knife. The air makes the metal corrode- so sometimes they are kept under oil to stop them from corroding. Their chemical reactions with water can be violent.
fkasjdfaksdhfl MY FAVORITE VIDEO EVER. I KNEW YOU’D COME BACK, ALKALI METALS.
“You can see things get gradually more terrifying as we go down the line”
GOD FUCKING DAMMIT CESSIUM
Cessium….YOU HAD ONE JOB
The last one is Francium and its molar mass is so huge that in order to have a noticeable reaction you would need a gigantic hunk, and you probably have to dump it in the ocean.
Why did we never do anything cool in my science classes? All we ever did was make stuffed moles with 6.02×1023 written on them. :/
BECAUSE I HAVE NO LIFE AND THIS IS REALLY BOTHERING ME…
The prevailing theory on Tumblr on how Sherlock survived the fall was that he managed to land in a laundry truck.
Benedict Cumberbatch is 1.84 meters tall and by using his body you can measure how far from the building he would have had to jump to make it into the truck. Roughly 7.32 meters.
Sherlock is standing on the Pathological Department of St. Bartholomew’s Hospital. Google Street View shows what appears to be Routemaster double-decker buses which are 4.38 meters tall. The building therefore is roughly 14.6 meters.
You can use Pythagoras’ theorem to calculate the distance which is 16.33 meters. FYI: The World Record for men’s long jump is 8.95 meters and that was done with a running start. Sherlock flopped over the edge with no horizontal directional speed. I don’t think it’s possible for the laundry truck theory.
EDIT: how much time he had to “steer” towards the truck while falling.
Time = √ 2(height)/gravity
Time = √ 2(14.6m)/9.8 m/s²
Time = √ 29.2m/9.8 m/s²
Time = √ 2.98 m/s²
Time = 1.73 seconds
Sherlock was falling for 1.73 seconds.
Question: Can you jump off a 14.6 meter building and land in a truck full of laundry 7.23 meters away in 1.73 seconds?
HOLY SHIT MATH AND PHYSICS
THIS IS LEGIT BECAUSE THEY USED MATHEMATICS
YOUR ARGUMENT IS INVALID
I am so bad at math but I appreciate it. This is QUALITY and jeez even visual aids YES THIS IS HOW I SHOULD HAVE LEARNED GEOMETRY
Sorry to burst everyone’s bubble but this is not quite right.
People don’t fall in straight lines, they fall in parabolas. So Pythagoras has nothing to do with this. What we need is projectile motion physics.
The dark red is the path he would actually take.
So using these figures it still takes 1.73 seconds to fall vertically 14.6m with an acceleration of 9.8 ms-1.
But travelling horizontally there is no acceleration or deceleration. To travel the 7.32m to the truck Sherlock would only have to take off from the roof at 4.23 ms-1. (Because of air resistance he may have fallen slower and taken a longer time therefore this number may be even lower). Average human walking speed is between 4 to 6 ms-1 (I couldn’t find an exact number) so for Sherlock to have reached the truck in that time he would only have to step off. By falling the way he did it looks like he didn’t push off but there is actually a lot more horizontal velocity than if he had just stepped so he could actually reach the truck.
Also this explains why Sherlock chose such a tall building. If the height wasn’t as large he couldn’t have made it that distance to the truck.
tl;dr: Sherlock could have made it to the truck without any particular effort. The truck theory is still viable.
I’m going to regret jumping on this, but the Parabola theory above is the correct one. You don’t fall in a straight line like what the original theory said.
That said, in order to make 7.32m of horizontal displacement, you need 4.23m/s of horizontal speed, which is NOT walking speed. According to Wikipedia (on Walking), average human walking speed is 3.1mph, or 1.4m/s. 4.23m/s amounts to about 9.5mph, which is a running speed. If you don’t believe me, get on a treadmill and set the “speed” to 9.5. I guarantee you’ll be running like hell.
Taking into account air resistance and all that shit, I’d imagine he’d be pretty lucky to be able to land on the truck. But even if he was that lucky, landing on the back of that truck will really break some shit. There has to be a more elegant solution to this, although it was really really suspicious that the truck just drove by after a person jumped off the building and landed next to it.
I’m more intrigued by this:
The truck went missing in one scene. Then it reappeared and drove away, but in the following cut, the truck was back to where it was when it first started.
Maybe it was just badly edited. But maybe…
Now THIS is some CSI shit I can actually follow and care about! XD ::makes popcorn::
holy god somewhere my physics and maths teachers are simultaneously crying and drowning their sorrows
Clearly the only thing we have to do now is test the hypothesis by sending it to Mythbusters.
And then afterwards they can blow the laundry truck up. FOR SCIENCE!
I love this fandom.
I hate math but I adore people who know their shit and I REALLY want someone to send this to the Mythbusters just for kicks and giggles. I’d love to see that episode.
Question: Not sure if this is relevant but Sherlock didn’t exactly walk off the building right? I mean he stepped off which means he went from a standstill to a freefall right?
I am proud to call myself a member of this fandom.
But seriously I have a lulzy feeling Moffat/Gatiss are gonna troll us with a super simple solution, because as someone else said…
… the last cliffhanger was solved by a ring-tone.